Many STIs—including chlamydia, gonorrhoea, primarily hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis—can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. It is made by sex workers, for sex workers.
More than 1 million STIs are acquired every day. However, in low- and middle-income countries, diagnostic tests are largely unavailable. For hepatitis B, immune system modulators interferon and antiviral medications can help to fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
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Female condoms are effective and safe, but are not used as widely by national programmes as male condoms. Research has demonstrated the need to focus on carefully defined populations, consult extensively with the identified target populations, and involve them in design, implementation and evaluation. Marginalized populations with the highest rates of STIs—such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, prison inmates, mobile populations and adolescents—often do not have access to adequate health services.
Pubic lice feed on a person's blood. WHO response WHO develops global norms and standards for STI treatment and prevention, strengthens systems for surveillance and monitoring, including those for drug-resistant gonorrhoea, and leads the setting of the global research agenda on STIs.
Marginalized populations with the highest rates of STIs—such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, prison inmates, mobile populations and adolescents—often do not have access to adequate health services. The STI and BBV information provided has been checked by medical professionals and all content has gone through various consultation processes with sex workers to ensure the content in Red Book is accurate, relevant and reflects our diverse experiences, identities, contexts and needs. Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain.
Scope of the problem STIs have a profound impact on sexual and reproductive health worldwide. Vaccines and other biomedical interventions Safe and highly effective vaccines are available for 2 STIs: